The Bridegroom and the Bride

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The Bridegroom and the Bride, ahhhhhh - the love story of love stories! Perhaps the greatest mystery in the Bible surrounds this relationship. It has long been kept secret, guarded as it is a very, very, very valuable truth. Few have understood what you will read here. The Bible is plain enough for all to see that Y'shua is the Bridegroom. It is also plain that He will one day take certain righteous saints to Himself as a Bride. Who it is that shall compose the Bride and how particularly blessed she is, however, is hidden.

Let us rejoice and be glad and give him glory! For the wedding of the Lamb has come, and his bride has made herself ready. 8 Fine linen, bright and clean, was given her to wear." (Fine linen stands for the righteous acts of the saints.) 9 Then the angel said to me, "Write: 'Blessed are those who are invited to the wedding supper of the Lamb!'" And he added, "These are the true words of God."

Revelation 19:7-9

Who is the Bride and what are her qualifications? The truth of the matter, though I expound it here as plainly as I can, will yet remain veiled to those from whom the Bridegroom hides it. If your eyes are opened to such a matter as this, rejoice, friend, because you are a candidate, one who has been wooed by the Bridegroom and fallen in love. You have accepted His washing of water with the Word and have rejoiced in Him.

A Profound Mystery

22 Wives, be subject to your own husbands, as to the Lord.
23 For the husband is the head of the wife, as Christ also is the head of the church, He Himself being the Savior of the body.
24 But as the church is subject to Christ, so also the wives ought to be to their husbands in everything.
25 Husbands, love your wives, just as Christ also loved the church and gave Himself up for her,
26 so that He might sanctify her, having cleansed her by the washing of water with the word,
27 that He might present to Himself the church in all her glory, having no spot or wrinkle or any such thing; but that she would be holy and blameless.
28 So husbands ought also to love their own wives as their own bodies. He who loves his own wife loves himself;
29 for no one ever hated his own flesh, but nourishes and cherishes it, just as Christ also does the church,
30 because we are members of His body.
31 FOR THIS REASON A MAN SHALL LEAVE HIS FATHER AND MOTHER AND SHALL BE JOINED TO HIS WIFE, AND THE TWO SHALL BECOME ONE FLESH.
32 This mystery is great; but I am speaking with reference to Christ and the church.
33 Nevertheless, each individual among you also is to love his own wife even as himself, and the wife must see to it that she respects her husband.

Ephesians 5:22-33

I only understood the mysterious riddle presented in this passage after I had become very familiar with the Bride type and her relationship with Christ and the church. According to verse 32, this passage is less a text on the human marriage relationship than it is a profound mystery, a deep secret about Christ and the church. This is the perspective from which we must examine the passage. Some great truth is being presented about Christ and those with whom He will become united in marriage - His Bride. There are two keys herein that instruct us about the church whom the Bridegroom will present to Himself in all her glory.

The direct quote of another passage in the Scriptures points us to where keys may be found that unlock the riddle's solution. The reference in Ephesians 5:31 points us to Genesis 2:24.

The Profound Mystery
Ephesians 5:28-30:
28 So husbands ought also to love their own wives as their own bodies. He who loves his own wife loves himself;
29 for no one ever hated his own flesh, but nourishes and cherishes it, just as Christ also does the church,
30 because we are members of His body.
Genesis 2:23:
23 The man said,
"This is now bone of my bones,
And flesh of my flesh;
She shall be called Woman,
Because she was taken out of Man."
Ephesians 5:31:
FOR THIS REASON A MAN SHALL LEAVE HIS FATHER AND MOTHER AND SHALL BE JOINED TO HIS WIFE, AND THE TWO SHALL BECOME ONE FLESH.
Genesis 2:24:
For this reason a man shall leave his father and his mother, and be joined to his wife; and they shall become one flesh.

The two passages compare in that Christ is identified as another Adam, the last Adam.

45 So also it is written, "The first MAN, Adam, BECAME A LIVING SOUL." The last Adam became a life-giving spirit.
46 However, the spiritual is not first, but the natural; then the spiritual.
47 The first man is from the earth, earthy; the second man is from heaven.
48 As is the earthy, so also are those who are earthy; and as is the heavenly, so also are those who are heavenly.
49 Just as we have borne the image of the earthy, we will also bear the image of the heavenly.

I Corinthians 15:45-49

There are two pattern Adams; the first man Adam and the last Adam who is Christ. These Adams are shown in I Corinthians to each be an example after which many more would be brought forth in like kind. Both Adams have bodies of a particular nature - and have had or will have a bride of like nature! It is a glorious truth that there are also two Eves! The natural first woman Eve was for the first man Adam and was taken from his own natural body. The "last Eve" who is referred to as the Bride of Christ or the Bride of the Lamb is for the last Adam. Just as the natural Eve was taken from the first man Adam's body, so shall a woman/church/Bride be taken from the last Adam's Body. The last Adam did not have a bride while his body was an earthy body born of Mary in Bethlehem after the fashion of the first Adam. Now, however, he has a body which is the many membered church, spiritual and heavenly in nature, and it is from this Body that some members in particular will be taken out to be His Bride. The Bride is obviously not the whole or every member of the Body but rather a remnant taken out of it to become a distinct and separate entity, just as the first woman Eve was distinct and separate from Adam's body. compare the columns in the table above. Observe how Ephesians 5:28-29 makes reference to the church consisting of we ourselves as members of the body of Christ. The Bride that will be taken out of the many membered Body will be heavenly bone of His heavenly bones and heavenly flesh of his heavenly flesh. The Bridegroom exhibited this heavenly flesh and bones for all the disciples to see and feel following His resurrection, and recorded this testimony for our sakes.

See My hands and My feet, that it is I Myself; touch Me and see, for a spirit does not have flesh and bones as you see that I have.

Luke 24:39

The Bride will be taken out of the Body in resurrection when the heavenly last Adam Bridegroom comes to receive her to Himself, and then she will be flesh of His flesh and bone of His bones, bearing the image of the heavenly! When in Genesis 2:24 and Ephesians 5:31it is declared that the two will become one flesh, it is a certain promise that the Bride's body will be the same kind as His body!

All flesh is not the same flesh, but there is one flesh of men, and another flesh of beasts, and another flesh of birds, and another of fish.
40 There are also heavenly bodies and earthly bodies, but the glory of the heavenly is one, and the glory of the earthly is another.
41 There is one glory of the sun, and another glory of the moon, and another glory of the stars; for star differs from star in glory.
42 So also is the resurrection of the dead.

I Corinthians 15:39-42

The Bridegroom who is the sun of righteousness (Psalm 19:4-5, Malachi 4:2 ) will grant His Bride a sun kind of eternal glorified body! Oh, what grace and love! It seems a profound truth that Eve was taken from the first Adam’s side while he was asleep, because as the Bride may note, the church of His body is falling even now into a deep sleep.

So the Lord God caused a deep sleep to fall upon the man, and he slept; then He took one of his ribs and closed up the flesh at that place.
22 The Lord God fashioned into a woman the rib which He had taken from the man, and brought her to the man.

Genesis 2:21-22

Here is another view of the wedding that will take place.

You have loved righteousness and hated wickedness; Therefore God, Your God, has anointed You With the oil of joy above Your fellows.
8 All Your garments are fragrant with myrrh and aloes and cassia; Out of ivory palaces stringed instruments have made You glad.
9 Kings' daughters are among Your noble ladies; At Your right hand stands the queen in gold from Ophir.
10 Listen, O daughter, give attention and incline your ear: Forget your people and your father's house;
11 Then the King will desire your beauty. Because He is your Lord, bow down to Him.
12 The daughter of Tyre will come with a gift; The rich among the people will seek your favor.
13 The King's daughter is all glorious within; Her clothing is interwoven with gold.
14 She will be led to the King in embroidered work; The virgins, her companions who follow her, Will be brought to You.
15 They will be led forth with gladness and rejoicing; They will enter into the King's palace.
16 In place of your fathers will be your sons; You shall make them princes in all the earth.
17 I will cause Your name to be remembered in all generations; Therefore the peoples will give You thanks forever and ever.

Psalms 45:7-17

The one who has been set above his companions is the anointed one, HaMashiach, the Bridegroom Y'shua. His bride is seen here as beautiful and adorned with gold. Since the one addressed in verse 16 will make the sons princes throughout the land, this union of the Bridegroom and Bride will produce sons for Y'shua who will take the place of their fathers. A special message is given to the Bride: Listen, O daughter, consider and give ear: and the instruction is given. The Bride will listen, and obey. She will forget her people and her Father's house, the body of Christ out from whom she came. Her focus will be solely upon her Groom! The virgins, her companions who follow her, those that will be brought to her are those virgins of Matthew 25 who are wise. They didn't "make the cut" when the Bride was taken, but do repent and wash their robes in the blood of the Lamb to make the "second cut."

There are many types of the Bride and Groom in the Bible to bring this most wonderful relationship into clearer view. Here are a few sketches.

Joseph and Asenath

In Genesis 41:45, Joseph, a widely recognized type of Christ, receives a significant name that signifies Christ. "Zaphenath-Paneah" means "revealer of secrets" or "treasury of the glorious rest." He receives a bride from Pharaoh, (God) sovereign ruler of Egypt. (Heaven)

Then Pharaoh named Joseph Zaphenath-paneah; and he gave him Asenath, the daughter of Potiphera priest of On, as his wife. And Joseph went forth over the land of Egypt.

Genesis 41:45

Notice that this bride was Egyptian, chosen from outside the land of Canaan - a Gentile Bride type. She is the daughter of a priest (suggesting service to God) and the daughter of Potiphera, (he who worships [to the sun]2) priest of On (light)3 Her name means "I shall be hated." This identifies her with her husband Y'shua, who was also hated.4

In Psalm 45's scene depicting the Bridegroom and Bride, (see above) there are two features that recall the two sons born of the union between Joseph and Asenath.

Manasseh

Listen, O daughter, give attention and incline your ear: Forget your people and your father's house

Psalm 45:10

Ephraim

In place of your fathers will be your sons; You shall make them princes in all the earth.

Psalm 45:16

Allusion is made in Genesis 41

Now before the year of famine came, two sons were born to Joseph, whom Asenath, the daughter of Potiphera priest of On, bore to him.
51 Joseph named the firstborn Manasseh, "For," he said, "God has made me forget all my trouble and all my father's household."
52 He named the second Ephraim, "For," he said, "God has made me fruitful in the land of my affliction."

Genesis 41:50-52

Isaac and Rebecca

There is another lesson about the Bride found in Genesis. In chapter 22, we see the Patriarch Abraham as a type of the Heavenly Father, willing to sacrifice his son. Isaac is a type of Y'shua as the son willing to be sacrificed. The Bride type is found in chapter 24. An unnamed servant (the holy spirit) is sent by Abraham to get a bride for Isaac (Y'shua). The characteristic attitude of those who comprise the Bride is suggested by the gifts the servant presents to the beautiful virgin he finds. (v. 22) the ring is a nose ring, speaking to me of what is used to lead livestock. The large bracelets suggest manacles. These gifts are of gold, the finest Quality adornment. The bride-to-be accepts these gifts, suggesting the bride's willingness to submit to the Bridegroom. Her name is Rebecca, which means "following." Make note that the holy-spirit type was carefully directed to search for the bride from outside Canaan but from among the Father's own people - suggestive of the Bride being chosen out from among the church.

Make note of what will be seen as a common thread in Bride-type accounts, the fact that the servant makes contact with the beautiful virgin as she comes to the well to draw water.

Moses and Zipporah

... But Moses fled from the presence of Pharaoh and settled in the land of Midian, and he sat down by a well.
16 Now the priest of Midian had seven daughters; and they came to draw water and filled the troughs to water their father's flock.
17 Then the shepherds came and drove them away, but Moses stood up and helped them and watered their flock.
18 When they came to Reuel their father, he said, "Why have you come back so soon today?"
19 So they said, "An Egyptian delivered us from the hand of the shepherds, and what is more, he even drew the water for us and watered the flock."
20 He said to his daughters, "Where is he then? Why is it that you have left the man behind? Invite him to have something to eat."
21 Moses was willing to dwell with the man, and he gave his daughter Zipporah to Moses.

Exodus 2:15b-21

Name Meanings:

As a general principle, I have noted that when you find a name appearing in a context where the meaning of the name can be observed in that context, you have a “red flag” being thrown on the field, in a sense, signalling that you have come upon a cryptic prophetic scenario. Moses' name means “drawing out.”

Come, let us deal wisely with them, or else they will multiply and in the event of war, they will also join themselves to those who hate us, and fight against us and depart from the land.

Exodus 1:10

In Exodus 2:17, Moses stood and watered their flock from the well he had come to sit by. The man named “drawing out” because he was drawn out of the water is shown drawing out water. See what I mean? So, we look for and find a cryptic prophetic scenario! It is a Bridegroom/Gentile Bride meeting.

This Bridegroom/Bride meeting by the well is one of three similar scenarios I've noted. In Genesis 22, Rebecca is the Bride type who is encountered at a well as she came to draw water. She married Isaac, the Bridegroom type. In John 4, the Samaritan woman who came to draw water met The Bridegroom himself at Jacob's well. That Zipporah is the daughter of a Gentile priest compares to the Bride type Asenath, the bride given to the patriarch Joseph by Pharaoh who was the daughter of the priest of On. Zipporah also compares to the Bride type Shulamite woman of the book of Solomon in that her skin was dark. (Song of Songs 1:6) Zipporah and the sons she would bear Moses were very dark complexioned. This speaks to me of long exposure to the Sun of Righteousness, basking in the light of His presence. (Malachi 4:2) The character of Zipporah is described in the book of Jasher. Jasher 78:8: ''And Zipporah walked in the ways of the daughters of Jacob, she was nothing short of the righteousness of Sarah, Rebecca, Rachel and Leah.'' Her character will be seen as such in an act of intercession for Moses I'll present shortly. The meanings of her name are appropriate for a Bride type. Beauty, as described by in the Song of Songs and as seen in Psalm 45:11. She is a trumpet as the instrument of praise, and the voice proclaiming the attributes of and coming of the Bridegroom. Mourning as one who has accepted the burden and reproach shared by the Bridegroom. She is like a sparrow which is perhaps the most humble of birds.

The bird also has found a house,
And the swallow a nest for herself, where she may lay her young,
Even Your altars, O Lord of hosts, my King and my God.

Psalm 84:3

The Priest of Midian, father of the Bride type, is called by two names, Reuel and Jethro. He is then a shepherd and a friend of God, and the remnant representing His excellence. He plays an interesting role. He is in Jasher 77 shown to be the agent by whom the sapphire stick of God is returned back to the line of Jacob. This stick and how Moses acquires it is shown to be the impetus for Reuel the Midianite to give his daughter to Moses for a Bride.

In Zipporah we see the bride coming from out of the church modeled in that her father Reuel has seven daughters. Churches are symbolically represented as women, and these seven represent the seven churches as presented in Revelation 1:4.

Now the priest of Midian had seven daughters; and they came to draw water and filled the troughs to water their father's flock.
17 Then the shepherds came and drove them away, but Moses stood up and helped them and watered their flock.

Exodus 2:16-17

John to the seven churches that are in Asia: Grace to you and peace, from Him who is and who was and who is to come, and from the seven Spirits who are before His throne,

Revelation 1:4

Notice that the shepherds came and drove them away when they came to the well. Bride, you know how that feels, because this is what the shepherds appointed over the Lord's flock do to the truly thirsty - until The Deliverer comes and helps!

Finally, about Moses, the Bridegroom type came to the land of Midian, which according to the meaning of the name of the land was to the land of strife or contention. This is the environment in which a Bride may be found. Amen? As He the Bridegroom is, so are we who are His in this world.

The Woman at the Well

Y'shua met a woman at Jacob's well one day as she came to draw water. She, too, is a Bride-type. Please Read John 4 in its entirety before you continue. This woman was a Samaritan, considered to be a Gentile outside of the fold of Judaism.6 An interesting scenario develops that points out how the Bride is distinguished from the disciples. At the point where Y'shua begins a conversation with her, the narrative immediately mentions that the disciples had gone into town to buy food. (verse 8) And, at the exact point where Y'shua's conversation concludes, the disciples return. As verse 27 records:

At this point His disciples came, and they were amazed that He had been speaking with a woman, yet no one said, "What do You seek?" or, "Why do You speak with her?"

John 4:27

A puzzling statement, is it not? Let me suggest that the puzzle is resolved when the Bride-type is understood. The food that the disciples went to buy is an important element in the context. From verses 31-34, we learn that food signifies doing the will of the one who sent Jesus and to finish his work. In verses 35-38, Y'shua reveals the nature of this work. The Bride has been faithfully doing this work, and therefore has food. Those disciples who are not the Bride do not have this food and must go buy it. Those disciples do not share the Bride's special relationship with the Bridegroom and all associated benefits so they are excluded in what transpires in 4:9-26. #7 As the Bride departs, the disciples return to the scene. Having bought food, they don't need to ask what Y'shua wanted or why he talks with her, they now understand about the Bride.

In the course of the conversation between the Y'shua and the Bride-type, some wonderful truths are brought forth. Comparing with the servant's coming to the well seeking someone special for Isaac's bride, we read in John 4:23:Yet a time is coming and has now come when the true worshipers will worship the Father in spirit and truth, for they are the kind of worshipers the Father seeks. Such are those who comprise the Bride. The Samaritan woman wants to know about matters of eternal life, true worship and the Messiah. The Bride comes to the well to draw water, desiring to drink of the waters about which our Lord spoke in verse 14, that will become in them a spring of water gushing up to eternal life. The people of the town came to believe because of this woman's testimony and then because they made a direct investigation.8 I find it interesting that reference is made to property that was given as a gift to Joseph in verse 5's preface to the account. Wasn't that how he got a bride too? A final note: the two days are two thousand years.

Boaz and Ruth

Boaz (in him is strength) is a type of Christ as the kinsman-redeemer. The Book of Ruth shows us the Bride-type clearly as Ruth (satisfied, or, friend) becomes the bride of the Bridegroom-type Boaz. Ruth is descended from Moab (from Father) and thus follows the typical pattern of a Gentile bride. The relationship between Naomi, (my pleasantness) who represents Israel, and Ruth is very significant, as are the harvest activities. Notice that Ruth is made known to Boaz by the foreman of his harvesters, an unnamed servant - a type of the holy spirit. (Ruth 2:5-6) Consider how Ruth found favor with Boaz in Ruth 2:10-13: The Bride-type Ruth, as her name implies is a friend of Israel. What wonderful revelation is revealed in ruth 2:19-20 and following as Ruth helps bring Naomi to a special awareness of Boaz. Consider the following verse.

Now is not Boaz our kinsman, with whose maids you were? Behold, he winnows barley at the threshing floor tonight.

Ruth 3:2

The maids are those of the church who were disqualified at the selection of the bride, the virgins of Matthew 25, and Psalm 45:14-15. Ruth has been among them in the fields. Winnowing barley on the threshing floor pictures the testing of the church at the selection of the Bride. I believe that the two kinds of grain barley and wheat represent the two divisions of the church whose reward will remain. The barley harvest occurs first because it ripens earlier. Y'shua himself is represented by barley. It appears that his Bride is also represented thusly. Why barley? Even to this day, a crop of barley is sometimes plowed under instead of being harvested because it conditions the soil, making it more productive for the next crop. It is a sacrificial crop! The firstfruits of the barley harvest is offered on Firstfruits, during Pesach, while the firstfruits of the wheat harvest is offered on Shavuot. notice that when we get to the threshing floor scenario, Ruth is found at the feet of Boaz.

Solomon and the Shulamite

Solomon (peaceableness) is a type of Christ as the prince of Peace, as the one to build God's house, and the one greatest in wisdom.

Then Solomon formed a marriage alliance with Pharaoh king of Egypt, and took Pharaoh's daughter and brought her to the city of David, until he had finished building his own house and the house of the Lord and the wall around Jerusalem.

1 Kings 3:1

The above verse is a fantastic snapshot of the Bridegroom/Bride type in itself, but the whole of Song of Solomon appears to give us a broad portrayal. Though my understanding of it is certainly limited, I will share a few insights I think are valid.

Do not stare at me because I am dark, because I am darkened by the sun. My mother's sons were angry with me and made me take care of the vineyards; my own vineyard I have neglected.

Song of Songs 1:6 (NIV)

The bride is not well liked, well, hated actually. The Bride is dark, suntanned from abiding in the light of the Sun of Righteousness as she works in the Vineyards.

To me, my darling, you are like
My mare among the chariots of Pharaoh.
10 Your cheeks are lovely with ornaments,
Your neck with strings of beads.
11 We will make for you ornaments of gold
With beads of silver.

Song of Songs 1:9-11

As the Bride-type Rebecca had received a gold nose ring and manacle-like bracelets, this Bride-type is likened to a richly adorned mare harnessed to one of the chariots of Pharaoh.

My beloved responded and said to me,
'Arise, my darling, my beautiful one,
And come along.
11 For behold, the winter is past,
The rain is over and gone.
12 The flowers have already appeared in the land;
The time has arrived for pruning the vines,
And the voice of the turtledove has been heard in our land.
13 The fig tree has ripened its figs,
And the vines in blossom have given forth their fragrance.
Arise, my darling, my beautiful one,
And come along!'

Song of Songs 2:10-13

And so the Bride will arise and be taken to be with her Bridegroom in the spring of the year, as the early fruit is formed on the fig tree Israel. (See Romans 11:15)

Who is this who looks down like the dawn, beautiful as the moon, pure as the sun, set up as the chief one? "I had gone down to the orchard of nut trees to see the blossoms of the valley to see whether the vine had budded or the pomegranates had budded. Before I knew what was happening, my soul set me upon the lead chariot of the princely people." "Return, return, O Shulamite! Return, return, that we may gaze upon you. What is so special about the Shulamite? To be placed in the company of the sacred courts."

Song of Songs 6:10-13 (Keil and Delitzsch translation)

Shulamite appears to be the feminine form of Solomon - representing "Mrs. Solomon," or, the Bride. As she is faithfully obedient to the command to pray for the peace of Jerusalem, inquiring diligently as to the status of Jerusalem and their response to Y'shua's messiahship for signs of whether the vine or pomegranates had budded, she was escorted away upon the lead chariot of the princely people to be placed in the company of the sacred courts. Those who remained missed her greatly, being then very concerned about exactly what it was that distinguished her from them.

Daniel, Shadrach, Meshach and Abednego

Though Daniel was a man and not a woman, (actually, he was a eunuch) I believe that he still fits the Bride type. Have you ever considered where shadrach, Meshach and Abednego were when Daniel alone was thrown into the lion's den in Daniel 6? Why weren't they included? And where was Daniel in chapter 3's test when Shadrach, Meshach and Abednego refused to worship nebuchadnezzar's image and were thrown into the fiery furnace? These riddles are solved when you view Daniel as a Bride-type and Shadrach, Meshach and Abednego as those who are left behind but wash their robes in the blood of the lamb. Although these four men are all of a kind, Daniel stands out as distinct in numerous ways. (See Daniel 1:7-21) while the other three were passing the test of refusal to worship the image-of-the-beast type and fiery furnace, (great-tribulation type) Daniel was in the King's palace. (LXX)9 The Bride-type was in an exalted royal position outside the influence of the great tribulation.10

May you be found worthy, dear friend!

He who has My commandments and keeps them is the one who loves Me; and he who loves Me will be loved by My Father, and I will love him and will disclose Myself to him."
22 Judas (not Iscariot) said to Him, "Lord, what then has happened that You are going to disclose Yourself to us and not to the world?"
23 Jesus answered and said to him, "If anyone loves Me, he will keep My word; and My Father will love him, and We will come to him and make Our abode with him.
24 He who does not love Me does not keep My words; and the word which you hear is not Mine, but the Father's who sent Me.

John 14:21-24

Endnotes:

1) A washing of water by The Word Himself (John 1:1,14).
John 13:1-17: It was just before the Passover Feast. Jesus knew that the time had come for him to leave this world and go to the Father. Having loved his own who were in the world, he now showed them the full extent of his love. 2 The evening meal was being served, and the devil had already prompted Judas Iscariot, son of Simon, to betray Jesus. 3 Jesus knew that the Father had put all things under his power, and that he had come from God and was returning to God; 4 so he got up from the meal, took off his outer clothing, and wrapped a towel around his waist. 5 After that, he poured water into a basin and began to wash his disciples' feet, drying them with the towel that was wrapped around him. 6 He came to Simon Peter, who said to him, "Lord, are you going to wash my feet?" 7 Jesus replied, "You do not realize now what I am doing, but later you will understand." 8 "No," said Peter, "you shall never wash my feet." Jesus answered, "Unless I wash you, you have no part with me." 9 "Then, Lord," Simon Peter replied, "not just my feet but my hands and my head as well!" 10 Jesus answered, "A person who has had a bath needs only to wash his feet; his whole body is clean. And you are clean, though not every one of you." 11 For he knew who was going to betray him, and that was why he said not every one was clean. 12 When he had finished washing their feet, he put on his clothes and returned to his place. "Do you understand what I have done for you?" he asked them. 13 "You call me 'Teacher' and 'Lord,' and rightly so, for that is what I am. 14 Now that I, your Lord and Teacher, have washed your feet, you also should wash one another's feet. 15 I have set you an example that you should do as I have done for you. 16 I tell you the truth, no servant is greater than his master, nor is a messenger greater than the one who sent him. 17 Now that you know these things, you will be blessed if you do them. (return to article)

2) Psalms 19:4-5: Their Voice goes out into all the earth, their words to the ends of the world. In the heavens he has pitched a tent for the sun, 5 which is like a bridegroom coming forth from his pavilion, like a champion rejoicing to run his course.(return to article)

3) The Septuagint translates the city name "On" as "Heliopolis" - the city of the sun. Malachi 4:2: But for you who fear My name, the sun of righteousness will rise with healing in its wings; and you will go forth and skip about like calves from the stall. (return to article)

4) The Bride is not of the world, but is "Egyptian," and the world hates her - she is Asenath! John 15:18-19: If the world hates you, you know that it has hated Me before it hated you.
19 "If you were of the world, the world would love its own; but because you are not of the world, but I chose you out of the world, because of this the world hates you.

Matthew 24:9: Then they will deliver you to tribulation, and will kill you, and you will be hated by all nations because of My name.

As with her Bridegroom, so it shall be with the Bride. The Bride is marked by persecution and martyrdom. (return to article)

6) Because the Bride is typically portrayed as a beautiful virgin, the traditional interpretation of the woman’s character doesn’t mesh. It may well be that this woman was blameless in the matter of her five husbands. She may have been put away by a series of bills of divorcement, signifying rejection - certainly characteristic of the Bride. Or, perhaps, her husbands each died. The one she was presently with who was not her husband may have been other than a lover to her. (return to article)

7) The initial question Y’shua asks of the Bride before we learn that the disciples had gone to buy food is a key qualifier which separates people. Compare John 4:7 with Matthew 25:35 (return to article)

8) It is interesting that the Samaritan city of Sychar (meaning: drunken) is that which is known in the Tanuch (O.T.) as Shechem. Shechem is associated with the first Gentiles becoming one with Israel in circumcism, however shortlived it may have been.
Genesis 34:24: All who went out of the gate of his city listened to Hamor and to his son Shechem, and every male was circumcised, all who went out of the gate of his city.

There is another interesting connection here because the Valley of Achor runs by the town.
Hosea 2:15: Then I will give her her vineyards from there,
And the valley of Achor as a door of hope.
And she will sing there as in the days of her youth,
As in the day when she came up from the land of Egypt.

Certainly, the restoration of Israel has a "Valley of Achor" connection in what happened at Sychar. We know from such as Romans 11:11 that Israel wil be finally won through her envy of the Gentile church, one of the fruits of the Bride’s labor in the vineyard. (return to article)

9) Or, as variously translated: sat in the gate of the King / remained at the royal court / was at the king’s court. (Daniel 2:49) (return to article)

10) "Daniel" means my judge is God. "Belteshazzar" means Lord of the straitened’s treasure. "Hananiah" means the grace of Jah. "Shadrach" means the breast was tender. "Mishael" means who is what God is? "Meshach" means waters of quiet: who is what thou art?: biting. "Azariah" means helped of Jah. "Abednego" means servant of brightness. (return to article)

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